A nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) is a powerful burst of electromagnetic radiation generated by a nuclear explosion. This pulse can cause severe current and voltage surges in electrical and electronic systems, leading to serious destruction. The intensity of the pulse and its effects on electronic systems depend on the altitude of the detonation. The E1 (early) phase of a nuclear EMP produces an extremely high intensity pulse over a wide frequency range with a very short duration, ranging from nanoseconds to microseconds. This pulse is created when radiation from the nuclear explosion interacts with certain layers of the atmosphere, propagating a shock wave along power lines and inducing high voltages and currents in electronic equipment.
In July, Chinese researchers warned their government to be prepared for a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack. The potential of an EMP emitted by a nuclear weapon detonation at high altitude was already known in the early days of nuclear weapons testing. This interaction of negatively charged electrons with the magnetic field radiates a pulse of electromagnetic energy. During the first nuclear test in the United States, on July 16, 1945, electronic equipment was protected due to Enrico Fermi's anticipation of the electromagnetic pulse. High-altitude nuclear tests such as Bluegill Triple Prime and Kingfish, conducted in October and November 1962 as part of Operation Fishbowl, provided enough data to allow physicists to accurately identify the physical mechanisms behind electromagnetic pulses. In military terminology, a nuclear warhead that detonates tens or hundreds of miles above the Earth's surface is known as a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse device (HEMP).The effects of E2 induction are similar to those caused by lightning bolts, which can damage or destroy sensitive electronic equipment at ground level.
The immense potential of an EMP emitted by a nuclear weapon detonation at high altitude has long been recognized. The devastating consequences of an EMP attack are far-reaching and can have catastrophic effects on our modern society. An EMP attack can cause widespread power outages, disrupt communication networks, disable transportation systems, and even cause physical damage to electronic devices. It is essential that governments take steps to protect their citizens from such an attack by developing strategies to mitigate its effects.